1. When you cite the words of a researcher, philosopher, or some other person whose data you use in your paper.
Wrong way: Parker states that people tend to treat each other kinder when they are put in a stressful situation.
Correct way: Timothy Parker, a doctor of psychology at the Nevada University of Psychology, states that people tend to treat each other kinder when they are put in stressful situations.
Wrong way: Sartre says that life is absurd.
Correct way: According to the famous French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, life is absurd.
2. When you use a direct quotation, you can paraphrase a part of it in a more reader-friendly way.
Original quote: Democratic rule is one of the necessary conditions for economic development (Smith).
Paraphrase: Economy expert Jason Smith believes “…democratic rule is one of the necessary conditions for economic development.”
Original quote: The butterfly effect means the possibility of global changes being caused by minor and seemingly non-influential circumstances (Ryan).
Paraphrase: Dr. Andrew Ryan understands the famous butterfly effect as “…the possibility of global changes being caused by minor and seemingly non-influential circumstances.”
3. When paraphrasing direct speech, mentioning the author’s name in parenthesis at the end of the phrase is also acceptable.
e.g. Since humanity is limited in resources, international organizations should be more concerned about the creation of some sort of backup plan in case modern energy systems collapse (Johnston).